November 27, Original Date:
Punctuating with quotation marks Introducing a quotation One of your jobs as a writer is Quotation used in essays guide your reader through your text.
Don't simply drop quotations into your paper and leave it to the reader to make connections. Integrating a quotation into your text usually involves two elements: Notice how a transitional phrase also serves to connect the quotation smoothly to the introductory statement.
Rossin her study of poor and working-class mothers in London from [signal], makes it clear that economic status to a large extent determined the meaning of motherhood [assertion].
Among this population [connection], "To mother was to work for and organize household subsistence" p. The signal can also come after the assertion, again with a connecting word or phrase: Illness was rarely a routine matter in the nineteenth century [assertion].
As [connection] Ross observes [signal], "Maternal thinking about children's health revolved around the possibility of a child's maiming or death" p.
Formatting Quotations Short direct prose Incorporate short direct prose quotations into the text of your paper and enclose them in double quotation marks: According to Jonathan Clarke, "Professional diplomats often say that trying to think diplomatically about foreign policy is a waste of time.
Rules about the minimum length of block quotations, how many spaces to indent, and whether to single- or double-space extended quotations vary with different documentation systems; check the guidelines for the system you're using.
Quotation of Up to 3 Lines of Poetry Quotations of up to 3 lines of poetry should be integrated into your sentence. Quotation of More than 3 Lines of Poetry More than 3 lines of poetry should be indented.
As with any extended indented quotation, do not use quotation marks unless you need to indicate a quotation within your quotation.
Punctuating with Quotation Marks Parenthetical citations With short quotations, place citations outside of closing quotation marks, followed by sentence punctuation period, question mark, comma, semi-colon, colon: Menand characterizes language as "a social weapon" p.
With block quotations, check the guidelines for the documentation system you are using. Commas and periods Place inside closing quotation marks when no parenthetical citation follows: Hertzberg notes that "treating the Constitution as imperfect is not new," but because of Dahl's credentials, his "apostasy merits attention" p.
Semicolons and colons Place outside of closing quotation marks or after a parenthetical citation. Menand acknowledges that H. Fowler's Modern English Usage is "a classic of the language," but he asks, "Is it a dead classic? How many students actually read the guide to find out what is meant by "academic misconduct"?
Quotation within a quotation Use single quotation marks for the embedded quotation: According to HertzbergDahl gives the U.
Constitution "bad marks in 'democratic fairness' and 'encouraging consensus'" p. Adding Clarification, Comment, or Correction Within quotations, use square brackets [ ] not parentheses to add your own clarification, comment, or correction. Use [sic] meaning "so" or "thus" to indicate that a mistake is in the source you're quoting and is not your own.The rule, again: when quoting a passage that contains a quote, the quote within the quote is placed in single quotation marks, as above; notice that the larger quote within which the quote-within-the-quote is embedded, is placed in double quotation marks, as ever.
TIP Sheet QUOTATION MARKS. Quotation marks are used primarily to enclose or set off exact words.
They are used to indicate a person's exact written or spoken words, and in certain situations they are also used to set off words, phrases, or specific types of titles. Quoting effectively is important because the right quotation presented properly can add spice, interest, thought, effectivenes, support, and respect to your writing.
Quoting ineffectively makes your writing look like an amateur attempt padded by random comments from strangers. How to Use Quotes Effectively Most, if not all, of your college professors will require you to use research material as a vital component of your writing.
However, this process is not as simple as cutting and pasting sentences (or even worse, paragraphs) from the original texts into your essay.
Examples of Summary, Quotation and Paraphrase. Updated on January 15, Virginia Kearney. more. Virginia has been a university English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier.
Definitions. Summary: tells the main idea of a piece of writing. The summary is always shorter than the main. If you are an American, using quotation marks could hardly be simpler: Use double quotation marks at all times unless quoting something within a quotation, when you use single.