On the evening of December 1, Rosa Parksa Montgomery seamstress on her way home from work, refused to give up her seat on the bus for a white man and was subsequently arrested. The idea of the boycott had been floating around for months. Both Nixon and Robinson were waiting for a test cast to challenge the segregated bus policy in Court.
Local laws dictated that African American passengers sat at the back of the bus while whites sat in front. If the white section became full, African Americans had to give up their seats in the back.
When Parks refused to move to give her seat to a white rider, she was taken to jail; she was later bailed out by a local civil rights leader.
Although Parks was not the first resident of Montgomery to refuse to give up her seat to a white passenger, local civil rights leaders decided to capitalize on her arrest as a chance to challenge local segregation laws.
They believed that the boycott could be effective because the Montgomery bus system was heavily dependent on African American riders, who made up about 75 percent of the ridership. Some 90 percent of the African American residents stayed off the buses that day.
The boycott was so successful that local civil rights leaders decided to extend it indefinitely.
A group of local ministers formed the Montgomery Improvement Association MIA to support and sustain the boycott and the legal challenge to the segregation laws. A powerful orator, he was new to the area and had few enemies, and, thus, local leaders believed he could rally the various factions of the African American community to the cause.
The MIA initially asked for first-come, first-served seating, with African Americans starting in the rear and white passengers beginning in the front of the bus. They also asked that African American bus drivers be hired for routes primarily made up of African American riders.
The bus companies and Montgomery officials refused to meet those demands. Many white citizens retaliated against the African American community: Several times the police arrested protesters and took them to jail, once charging 80 leaders of the boycott with violating a law that barred conspiracies to interfere with lawful business without just cause.
Despite such intimidation, the boycott continued for more than a year. The MIA filed a federal suit against bus segregation, and on June 5,a federal district court declared segregated seating on buses to be unconstitutional. The Supreme Court upheld that ruling in mid-November.
The federal decision went into effect on December 20, The boycott garnered a great deal of publicity in the national press, and King became well known throughout the country. The success in Montgomery inspired other African American communities in the South to protest racial discrimination and galvanized the direct nonviolent resistance phase of the civil rights movement.
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In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. A black coalition of ministers and community members at the meeting formed the Montgomery Improvement Association.
At Nixon's suggestion, the members selected a young, little-known Baptist minister, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., as their chief spokesperson. In December of , 42, black residents of Montgomery began a year-long boycott of city buses to protest racially segregated seating.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks in Montgomery, Alabama during the bus boycott. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement and was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott in Montgomery, Alabama was a crucial event in the 20th Century Civil Rights Movement. On the evening of December 1, Rosa Parks, a Montgomery seamstress on her way home from work, refused to give up her seat on the bus for a .
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
It was a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement. The campaign lasted from December 5, —the Monday after Rosa Parks.