Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Revolution and the growth of industrial society, — Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French Revolution broke out inand its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades.
Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe.
The Book of Kells. Danish seamen, painted midth century. The Viking Age saw Norseman explore, raid, conquer and trade through wide areas of the West. After the Fall of Romethe papacy served as a source of authority and continuity.
In the absence of a magister militum living in Rome, even the control of military matters fell to the pope. Gregory the Great c — administered the church with strict reform. A trained Roman lawyer and administrator, and a monk, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook and was a father of many of the structures of the later Roman Catholic Church.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he looked upon Church and State as co-operating to form a united whole, which acted in two distinct spheres, ecclesiastical and secular, but by the time of his death, the papacy was the great power in Italy: From this time forth the varied populations of Italy looked to the pope for guidance, and Rome as the papal capital continued to be the center of the Christian world.
Roman legions had never conquered Ireland, and as the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity managed to survive there. Monks sought out refuge at the far fringes of the known world: Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity.
Later in the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire restored its rule in much of Italy and Spain. Missionaries sent from Ireland by the Pope helped to convert England to Christianity in the 6th century as well, restoring that faith as the dominant in Western Europe.
Working as a trader he encountered the ideas of Christianity and Judaism on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, and around began preaching of a new monotheistic religion, Islamand in became the civil and spiritual leader of Medinasoon after conquering Mecca in By the early 8th century, Iberia and Sicily had fallen to the Muslims.
By the 9th century, MaltaCyprusand Crete had fallen — and for a time the region of Septimania. From this time, the "West" became synonymous with Christendomthe territory ruled by Christian powers, as Oriental Christianity fell to dhimmi status under the Muslim Caliphates.
The cause to liberate the " Holy Land " remained a major focus throughout medieval history, fueling many consecutive crusadesonly the first of which was successful although it resulted in many atrocities, in Europe as well as elsewhere. Charlemagne "Charles the Great" in English became king of the Franks.
Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity. Starting in the late 8th century, the Vikings began seaborne attacks on the towns and villages of Europe. Eventually, they turned from raiding to conquest, and conquered Ireland, most of England, and northern France Normandy.
These conquests were not long-lasting, however. In Alfred the Great drove the Vikings out of England, which he united under his rule, and Viking rule in Ireland ended as well. In Normandy the Vikings adopted French culture and language, became Christians and were absorbed into the native population.
By the beginning of the 11th century Scandinavia was divided into three kingdoms, NorwaySwedenand Denmarkall of which were Christian and part of Western civilization. Norse explorers reached IcelandGreenlandand even North America, however only Iceland was permanently settled by the Norse.
A period of warm temperatures from around enabled the establishment of a Norse outpost in Greenland inwhich survived for some years as the most westerly oupost of Christendom. From here, Norseman attempted their short-lived European colony in North Americafive centuries before Columbus.
They eventually settled in what is today Hungaryconverted to Christianity and became the ancestors of the Hungarian people. A West Slavic people, the Polesformed a unified state by the 10th century and having adopted Christianity also in the 10th century   but with pagan rising in the 11th century.
By the start of the second millennium AD, the West had become divided linguistically into three major groups. The Romance languagesbased on Latinthe language of the Romans, the Germanic languagesand the Celtic languages.
Sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan From the medieval Russian annals. Fromhe wrote:Learn western civilization industrial revolution with free interactive flashcards. Choose from different sets of western civilization industrial revolution flashcards on Quizlet.
Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean. Gutenberg's invention had a great impact on social and political developments. The Industrial Revolution, nationalism, and several political revolutions transformed the .
Industrial Revolution destroyed old division of clergy, nobility, and commoners New industry/commerce created bourgeoisie of traders, capitalists, etc. Stressed the virtues of work, thrift, ambition, and caution.
Learn western civ industrial revolution impact with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of western civ industrial revolution impact flashcards on Quizlet. The French Revolution from the years and Napoleonic era from was a time period of radical social and political reform.
Despite obvious, physical damages and high death tolls, this period in history has major historical forces that exert immense influence on the not only the lives during that period, but also modern Western society. The French Revolution from the years and Napoleonic era from was a time period of radical social and political reform.
Despite obvious, physical damages and high death tolls, this period in history has major historical forces that exert immense influence on the not only the lives during that period, but also modern Western society.